why are my visual studio .obj files are massive in size compared to the output .exe?
As a background, I am a developer of an opensource project, a c++ library called openframeworks, that is a wrapper for different libraries, like opengl, quicktime, freeImage, etc. In the next release, we've added a c++ library called POCO, which is similar to boost in some ways in that it's an alternative for java foundation library type functionality.
I've just noticed, that in this latest release where I've added the POCO library as a statically linked library, the .obj files that are produced during the act of compilation are really massive - for example, several .obj files for really small .cpp files are 2mb each. The overall compiled .obj files are about 12mb or so. On the flip side, the exes that are produced are small - 300k to 1mb.
In comparison, the same library compiled in code::blocks produces .obj files that are roughly the same size at the exe - they are all fairly small.
Is there something happening with linking, and the .obj process in visual studio that I don't understand? for example, is it doing some kind of smart prelinking, or other thing, that's adding to the .obj size? I've experimented a bit with settings, such as incremental linking, etc, and not seen any changes.
thanks in advance for any ideas to try or insights !
note: thanks much! I just tried, dumpbin, which says "anonymous object" and doesn't return info about the object. this might be the reason why....
note 2, after checking out the above link, removing LTCG (link time code generation - /GL) the .obj files are much smaller and dumpbin understands them. thanks again !!
No correct solution
I am not a Visual Studio expert by any stretch of imagination, having hardly used it, but I believe Visual Studio employs link-time optimizations, which can make the resulting code run faster, but can cost a lot of space in the libraries. Also, it may be (I don't know the internals) that debugging information isn't stripped until the actual linking phase.
I'm sure someone's going to come with a better/more detailed answer anyway.
Possibly the difference is debug information.
The compiler outputs the debug information into the .obj, but the linker does not put that data into the .exe or .dll. It is either discarded or put into a .pdb.
In any case use the Visual Studio DUMPBIN utility on the .obj files to see what's in them.
Object files need to contain sufficient information for linking. In C++, this is name-based. Two object files refer to the same object (data/function/class) if they use the same name. This implies that all object files must contain names for all objects that might be referenced by other object files. The executable however will need the names visible from outside the library. In case of a DLL, this means only the names exported. The saving is twofold: there are less names, and those names are present only once in the DLL.
Modern C++ libraries will use namespaces. These namespaces mean that object names become longer, as they include the names of the encapsulating namespaces too.
The compiled library obj files will be huge because they must contain all of the functions, classes and template that your end users might eventually use.
Executables which link to your library will be smaller because they will include only the compiled code that they require to run. This will usually be a tiny subset of the library.